Microsoft Challenges IRS Over $28.9 Billion Tax Bill Linked to Puerto Rico Operations

Dan Nicholson

Microsoft is currently engaged in a significant legal battle with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), contesting a $28.9 billion tax bill. This bill, which includes penalties and interest, stems from the company's allocation of profits to a subsidiary in Puerto Rico. This case is the largest tax audit in U.S. history, and brings attention to the complexities of corporate tax practices and international profit distribution.

Decade-Long IRS Audit and Microsoft's Tax Strategy in Puerto Rico

For over ten years, the IRS has been closely examining Microsoft's tax records. Its focus is  on the company's profit allocation to a small factory in Puerto Rico. Initially, this strategy appeared beneficial to Microsoft, allowing the tech giant to take advantage of the islands’s favorable tax conditions and having passed an initial IRS audit with minimal adjustments. 

However, the IRS, after forming a unit to scrutinize such intra-company deals, challenged this arrangement calling it “illusory in nature, serving no material economic purpose except to shift income.” A federal judge sided with the IRS, finding “ itself unable to escape the conclusion that a significant purpose, if not the sole purpose, of Microsoft’s transactions was to avoid or evade federal income tax.”  Facing a tax demand much larger than any previous audit, Microsoft is now preparing to appeal, a process that could continue into the late 2020s.

Microsoft's Stance and the Appeal Process

In response to the IRS's proposed adjustments, Microsoft has expressed clear disagreement. The company asserts that it has consistently complied with tax laws, contributing substantial amounts to the U.S. treasury. 

"We believe we have always followed the IRS’ rules and paid the taxes we owe in the U.S. and around the world," stated Daniel Goff, a senior executive at Microsoft. 

The IRS's Notices of Proposed Adjustment (NOPAs) concluded the audit for 2004 to 2013, but Microsoft plans to appeal. The appeal is expected to take several years and will focus on Microsoft's transfer pricing and cost-sharing arrangements., These practices are common among multinational corporations for profit allocation. Microsoft aims to reduce or eliminate the proposed tax liability through this appeal.

Implications for Global Corporate Tax Practices

The Microsoft case signifies the IRS's heightened scrutiny of corporate tax strategies, especially those involving international transactions. The outcome of this case could influence how multinational companies approach tax planning and profit allocation. 

This case highlights the need for clear and consistent tax law application as businesses operate globally. The IRS's actions in this case may prompt other companies to reassess their tax strategies to avoid similar disputes and large tax bills.


The ongoing dispute between Microsoft and the IRS over a $28.9 billion tax bill marks a critical moment in corporate taxation. As Microsoft navigates the appeals process, the case serves as a reminder of the complexities and potential challenges of international tax planning for multinational corporations. 

Microsoft's determination to challenge the IRS's findings reflects the broader challenges faced by companies operating across multiple tax jurisdictions. The final outcome of this case will likely shape corporate tax strategies and IRS policies for years to come.




Dan Nicholson is the author of “Rigging the Game: How to Achieve Financial Certainty, Navigate Risk and Make Money on Your Own Terms,” deemed a best-seller by USA Today and The Wall Street Journal. In addition to founding the award-winning accounting and financial consulting firm Nth Degree CPAs, Dan has created and run multiple small businesses, including Certainty U and the Certified Certainty Advisor program.

No items found.
No items found.
Next Up In
No items found.
Banner for Certainty Tools, Play your Game.  Blue gradient color with CertaintyU Logo
No items found.
No items found.