Tough Times Ahead for the U.S. Economy?

Dan Nicholson

Although we started this year with hopes of a soft landing for the U.S. economy, some experts are predicting a different turn. A soft landing, in which the economy slows without slipping into recession is perhaps the best-case scenario we can hope for at the moment, but April’s jobs report and global developments suggest that we might be steering towards difficult times.

Predicting a Hard Landing

In a recent interview with Bloomberg TV, Andrew Hollenhorst, the chief U.S. economist at Citi, predicted a hard landing for the economy. He argues that the inflationary pressures and labor market conditions are weakening to a degree that may compel the Federal Reserve to cut benchmark rates up to four times this year—a much more aggressive approach than the one or two cuts anticipated by Wall Street.

“The next stage of the policy cycle is a weakening of the labor market. Once it starts gradually weakening, it then weakens more sharply,” he warned. “The reason I think the Fed’s going to see enough to cut is because we’re more toward the hard landing end of the spectrum.”

Hollenhorst’s viewpoint was validated by a softer payroll report from the Labor Department, which revealed that the U.S. economy added just 175,000 jobs in April, far less than the predicted 233,000 for the month, and 45% fewer than the 315,000 jobs added in March. This slowdown in job growth, along with Hollenhorst's analysis of other economic indicators, paints a somewhat gloomy picture of what lies ahead.

Mixed Economic Signals

Despite these concerning predictions, not all indicators point towards doom. Philipp Carlsson-Szlezak, Paul Swartz, and Martin Reeves outlined the indicators for a soft landing in an article for Harvard Business Review. “In reality, these developments are signs of strength, not weakness. Each is the consequence of a booming, not faltering, economy,” they wrote.

They pointed out that the job growth and wage growth are still strong, suggesting a robust employment market. Additionally, first-quarter GDP growth did cool but was mainly impacted by factors like a wider trade deficit and slower inventory restocking, while consumer demand remained strong.

A Global Downturn Will Influence the U.S. Economy

The U.S. economy does not operate in a vacuum; global events have a significant impact on its trajectory. Current tensions in international trade, especially with China, and the instability in European markets contribute to an environment of global economic uncertainty. Moreover, the ongoing effects of Brexit and other geopolitical tensions are causing fluctuations in global markets that indirectly impact the U.S. by influencing trade, investment, and financial markets.

Additionally, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has issued warnings about potential sluggish growth across the globe, which could lead to decreased demand for American exports. “Without a course correction, we are indeed heading for ‘the Tepid Twenties’—a sluggish and disappointing decade,” predicted IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva. These factors combined could exacerbate the challenges the U.S. economy faces, making the possibility of a hard landing more likely.

Pessimism Among the People 

The American public is increasingly wary of economic uncertainty. Rising costs of living and the visible impacts of inflation on everyday expenses are major concerns. A recent New York Times survey revealed that 51% of respondents see the current economic state as poor. Many Americans express doubts about the potential for improvement in their financial conditions in the near future. 

Political divisions and the upcoming presidential election also contribute to the uncertain economic outlook, as differing economic policies proposed by candidates can lead to varied expectations about the future. The general sentiment is cautious, with many preparing for tougher economic times ahead, potentially tightening their budgets and reducing spending, which could further slow economic growth.


As the debate about the potential for a soft versus a hard landing continues, it is crucial for policymakers, businesses, and consumers to prepare for all possibilities. The U.S. economy has demonstrated resilience in the past, but the mixed signals and expert predictions now surfacing suggest that we could be in for a challenging period ahead. Whether this leads to a significant downturn or a manageable slowdown remains to be seen, but it is clear that caution and preparedness will be key in navigating the uncertain economic waters of 2024.


Bloomberg TV


Harvard Business Review

Economics Observatory


New York Times

Dan Nicholson is the author of “Rigging the Game: How to Achieve Financial Certainty, Navigate Risk and Make Money on Your Own Terms,” deemed a best-seller by USA Today and The Wall Street Journal. In addition to founding the award-winning accounting and financial consulting firm Nth Degree CPAs, Dan has created and run multiple small businesses, including Certainty U and the Certified Certainty Advisor program.

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